Research suggests that concussions are wildly under-diagnosed and often go untreated. Even so, concussion is the most common injury for sports people across disciplines. Around 3.6 Million Americans suffer a concussion each year.


Concussion Rates in U.S. Middle School Athletes, 2015-2016 School Year

Current findings parallel those found in high school and college sports settings in that higher concussion rates were reported in girls and competitions.


Prevalence of and attitudes about concussion in Irish schools’ rugby union players.

Overall, 304 youth (aged 12-18 years) responded. Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed concussion was 19.4%, with annual (2010) prevalence 6.6%. Approximately 25.4% of players with diagnosed concussions returned to play without medical advice.

Factors Associated With Concussion-like Symptom Reporting in High School Athletes.

In the absence of a recent concussion, symptom reporting is related to sex and preexisting conditions. Consideration of sex and preexisting health conditions can help prevent misinterpretation of symptoms in student athletes who sustain a concussion.

Acute Lower Extremity Injury Rates Increase after Concussion in College Athletes.

Within 1 yr after concussion, the group with concussion was 1.97 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19-3.28; P = 0.01) times more likely to have experienced an acute lower extremity musculoskeletal injury after concussion than before concussion and 1.64 times (95% CI, 1.07-2.51; P = 0.02) more likely to have experienced an acute lower extremity musculoskeletal injury after concussion…

Previous literature has identified dynamic postural control deficits along with increased motor evoked potential latency and decreased amplitude after concussion, suggesting that the brain may be unable to effectively coordinate movement.


A systematic review and meta-analysis of concussion in rugby union.

there appears to be a variation in risk of concussion across level of play, with the sub-elite level having the greatest incidence of injury

Concussion knowledge in high school football players.

The high school football players we surveyed did not have appropriate knowledge of the symptoms and consequences of concussions.


The prevalence of undiagnosed concussions in athletes.

Nearly one-third (148) of athletes studied (468) have sustained previously undiagnosed concussions, defined as a blow to the head followed by the signs and symptoms included in the Post Concussion Symptom Scale.

Sport-related concussions: a review of epidemiology, challenges in diagnosis, and potential risk factors.

Despite the apparent high incidence of SRC, risk factors determining initial concussion, recovery periods, recurrence, and long-term outcomes remain poorly understood and warrant further study exploring the influence of age, sex, genetics, and athletic factors.


Post-concussion syndrome: prevalence after mild traumatic brain injury in comparison with a sample without head injury.

…significantly higher cognitive problems were observed in participants with mTBI compared with the control group.


A death due to concussive brain injury augmented by alcohol (case report).

Therefore, the conclusion was drawn that death in this case was due to the combination of the concussive effects of the head trauma and the central nervous system depressant effects of alcohol.


Attitudes to concussion in young New Zealand men.

…there is considerable awareness, particularly amongst sportsmen, of the effects of concussion, and that sports administrators would find considerable support for rules to reduce the risk of brain damage from repeated concussion.